Document Type : Original Article


1 Pharmaceutical, Cosmeceutical and Hygienic Products Microbial Control Lab, Center for Research & Training in Skin Diseases & Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Background: Hand hygiene plays a vital role in controlling pathogenic microorganisms’ transmission and maintaining the interaction between skin microbiota and biometric parameters. This study evaluated the effects of hand cleansers including alcoholic gel, alcoholic pad, antibacterial, and simple wipes on skin biometric parameters and microbiota.
Methods: Samples were collected from the hands of 15 healthy office workers with a mean age of 37.70 ± 9.6 years. Then, the subjects were instructed to use cleansers in four following rounds, with a one-week washout period between the rounds. Sample collection was performed before, right after, and one hour after using the cleansers. Microbial isolates were investigated via standard microbiological techniques, and biometric measurements were made using the Cutometer® MPA 580. The obtained data were analyzed using the paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.
Results: Overall, there were no significant differences between cleansers in reducing the total aerobic microbial count (TAMC). Also, there was an approximate return to the initial count of resident microbiota one hour after using the alcoholic pad. A significant difference was observed in decreasing the Staphylococcus aureus count using antibacterial wipes rather than simple wipes. Simple wipes had the most increasing effect on transepidermal
water loss (TEWL), showing a significant difference with the alcoholic gel. Furthermore, alcoholic gel caused a greater pH decrease in comparison to other products.
Conclusion: Alcoholic cleaners are more effective than antibacterial and simple wipes due to maintaining the skin’s biometric parameters. An additional advantage is that alcoholic pads can preserve the resident microbiota.