Document Type : Review Article


1 Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of General Medicine, Rasool Akram Medical Complex, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran

3 Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

4 Department of Pediatrics, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Dermatology, Skin Disease and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

6 Department of Dermatology, Rasool Akram Medical Complex Clinical Research Development Center (RCRDC), School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

7 Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: About 20% of patients with coronavirus disease
2019 (COVID-19) present with mucocutaneous eruptions. Early
skin or dermatological manifestations can help pediatricians
prevent the spread of the disease by suspecting COVID-19 in
asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients.
Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and the
Nottingham University website were searched on Sep. 1st, 2020,
to retrieve studies regarding COVID-19-related mucocutaneous
manifestations in patients under the age of 18.
Results: Data were extracted from 76 articles including 38,387 cases.
Chilblain/pernio-like lesions were the most common dermatological
manifestation, followed by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in
children (MIS-C)/Kawasaki-like syndrome. Most dermatological
signs were self-limited, presenting before, simultaneously with,
or after other COVID-19 manifestations. In 40% of the affected
children, these signs were the sole presentation of COVID-19.
Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, each new
mucocutaneous event in children, especially acral lesions with
vascular color, should be considered a possible indicator of