Background and aim: Pruritus is a common disabling problem in patients with end stage renal disease. Several studies has recorded the relation between pruritus with hemodialysis in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis on pruritus of patients with CRF.Materials and Methods: After recording the demographic data and the diagnosis of disease by a specialist, 44 patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis with 44 CRF non-hemodialysis patients were evaluated.Results: Pruritus in case group was 2.8 times of control group (P=0.033). Pruritus in female patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis was 7.4 times of non-hemodialysis patients (P=0.006). No relation was found between itching and hemodialysis in male patients with CRF.Conclusion: Pruritus is a common problem in CRF patients with hemodialysis and hemodialysis is an important factor in the initiation of pruritus.