Many investigators believe that immunotherapy will be the only selected treatment for leishmaniasis in the future. Leishmanization, vaccination or injection of stimulating mediators are among various forms of immunotherapy. In this pilot study, 5 volunteers with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L.tropica were treated with 4 weekly intralesional injections of autologous buffy coat. Cytological and histopathological changes showed the importance of the infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes and cytoplasmic degenerative changes in macrophages containing the parasite and cellular necrosis in destroying the parasites. These were correlated with clinical improvement and reduction in size of erythema and induration.