Background: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease originated from species of the genus Leishmania from the Trypanosomatidae family, with three main clinical forms of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral. Every year, many new cases of the disease are reported in endemic areas. Nowadays, in non-endemic regions, the incidence of the disease has also created tension. Medicine side effects, reports of resistance against currently used drugs, and the absence of a putative vaccine have made researchers look for new effective drugs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic and aquatic extracts of the Ziziphora tenuior L. on the prolifration of Leishmania major amastigotes.
Methods: The J774 cell lines were infected by promastigotes, at stationary phase, and treated with different concentrations of both extracts. After 12, 24 and 48 hours (h) at 37°C, the macrophages were stained with Giemsa, and the mean number of amastigotes in the macrophages was determined and compared with the control group. Finally, the ED50 of the extracts was calculated through statistical analysis.
Results: Aquatic and ethanolic extracts of Ziziphora tenuior L. reduced the number of amastigotes within the macrophages. Following 48h of treatment, the ED50 of the aquatic and ethanolic extracts of the plant were 15.75 mg/ml and 15 mg/ml, respectively. Hence, there was no significant difference between the ED50 of the aquatic and ethanolic extracts of the plant P<0.05).
Conclusion: Aquatic and ethanolic extracts of Ziziphora tenuior L. have a considerable anti Leishmania effect, hence the significance of further studies using the animal model of CL.